Isle of Wight Wild Deer – A few myths

A red deer hiding in some bracken on the Isle of Wight

Isle of Wight Deer-A few myths

The history of wild deer on the Isle of Wight reflects the neighbouring areas on the mainland coasts of Hampshire & Dorset,with deer populations establishing after the last Ice Age and fluctuating ever since.

Both wild and captive deer probably disappeared altogether from the island in the middle of the 19th century, around the time that the Worsley Estate was sold and carted deer hunting ceased, and only began to be seen again in the wild in the early1970s

Wild deer remain comparatively scarce on the Isle of Wight, Red and Muntjac are probably the most common species with the odd Fallow and Roe or Sika occasionally being seen. Deer are sometimes seen swimming across Southampton Water and the Solent to and from the island.

A few myths about our resident wild Isle of Wight deer:-

1. There are no wild deer on the Isle of Wight

Many people will have heard that the Isle of Wight has a “deer free status”, the Forestry Commission have recently clarified what they mean by this:- ” This is of course a relative term which compares the minimal deer numbers on the Isle of Wight with significant populations on the mainland”.  Obviously their use of the term “deer free” has been very misleading.

Both red & roe deer like these ae native to the island

2. Deer are an introduced species like Grey Squirrels and American Mink

There are 6 species of wild deer in the UK, evidence of 5 of which have all been seen on the island in recent years. Red and Roe are native* deer that recolonised England including the land that was to become the Isle of Wight after the last Ice Age, whilst Muntjac, Fallow and Sika are introduced species.

3. They are all deer farm escapes and there are no naturally occurring deer on the island

Red deer and Muntjac have been breeding in the wild for some years now and deer are known to swim across the Solent*.  The last commercial deer farm on the island closed around the year 2000. Roe and Muntjac are not kept in deer farms at all. A FOI request revealed that the IWC had no evidence to support their claim that there are no naturally occurring deer on the island.

A Roe doe – They are not kept on deer farms or in captivity on the Isle of Wight

No public authority has been able to produce firm evidence of any escaped farmed deer on the Isle of Wight when challenged under FOI/EIR regulations

4. The vegetation on Isle of Wight is more lush and varied compared to the mainland and biodiversity is greater due to the relative  absence of deer

The mild  climate and geology of the Isle of Wight are the prime reasons for our vegetation being different from many areas of the mainland and was recorded as such hundreds of years ago when wild deer were more abundant on the island. Both historical and archaeological records show that our rich woodlands evolved in the presence of wild deer.

Dorset claims greater floral diversity than the island whilst Hampshire claims to have the most varied biodiversity in the country, both of these counties have strong deer populations.

A fantastic floral display in a wood inhabited by Roe deer on the nearby mainland

5. Populations of rare mammals such as Woodland Bats, Red squirrels and Dormice are threatened by the presence of deer

The JNCC report on the status of our wild mammals makes no such claim, in fact Bats in particular benefit from deer grazing woodland pastures and rides which enables the Butterflies and Moths that they feed on to thrive. Some Bats also feed on the coprophagous insects found in deer dung.

6. Nightingales are only found when deer are absent

Nightingales breed mostly south of the Severn-Wash line and east from Dorset to Kent. The highest densities are found in the south east: Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Kent and Sussex, all these counties have significant populations of wild deer. In common with the mainland Nightingale numbers have declined sharply on the island since the second half of the 20th century.

BTO Nightingale Distribution Survey

7.Woodland Biodiversity is harmed by deer

It has been established by scientific research conducted  in North America, Great Britain and Europe that woodland biodiversity is at its greatest when deer are present at low density and decreases when deer are either totally absent or at a very high density.

8. In the UK deer spread diseases such as bluetongue

Bluetongue is a non-contagious disease of ruminants found in tropical and subtropical areas that rarely occurs elsewhere, it is carried and spread by the Culicoides imicola midge that cannot overwinter in our climate. No deer within the UK have ever been found to be infected with this virus.

9. Pregnant deer are more damaging to the environment than non-breeding deer

Whether a deer population has positive or negative environmental impacts is primarily down to deer density, i.e. optimum numbers with neither too few or too many (see What happens when you have too few deer?). Apart from a relatively minor positive contribution from the products of parturition to both vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers there appears to be no environmental significance to whether a deer population is breeding or not.

10. Deer cause Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is an infection caused by a group of bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi which are transmitted to humans following a bite from an infected Sheep tick Ixodes ricinus. Despite its name the Sheep tick will feed from a wide variety of mammals and birds. Bites from other ticks are possible, including the Hedgehog tick , Ixodes hexagonus, and the Fox and Badger tick, Ixodes canisuga. These ticks become infected during their larval and nymphal phases by feeding on the small mammals and birds which harbour the Lyme bacterium. Later in their development the infected nymphs and adults transfer the Lyme bacteria to the animals and people on which they feed. On the Isle of Wight there are over 30,000 Sheep and abundant small mammals and wild birds that can perform the role of a host for the Ixodid ticks and the diseases that they carry.  Deer are described as “incompetent hosts” for these Lyme disease causing bacteria and do not transmit the infection back to the ticks.

The important thing is to be aware of the dangers caused by a tick bite and to seek prompt medical help if bitten. Take special care when walking through long damp grass etc. as this is where ticks are found after falling off one host to await the next. More useful information may be found on the Lyme Disease Action Website and in “Science Daily – Lyme Disease: You can’t blame the deer”

*Native species  (indigenous)A species, subspecies or lower taxon, occurring within its natural range (past and present) and dispersal potential (i.e. within the range it occupies naturally or could occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans)IUCN 2000

If you have seen some deer on the island please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

Thank you for your interest and support

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

Wild Red deer yearling Isle of Wight

Wild Red deer yearling Isle of Wight

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Rewilding-Deer and the environment 2

Red deer Hind & Yearling Isle of Wight

Deer and the Environment (2)

It has been said that the Isle of Wight has a unique rich ground flora due to the absence of deer, but is this really true?

This rich ground flora is an undeniable and welcome fact but is it truly unique? How does this relate to deer and what other factors may be involved? I decided to compare and contrast our island with other areas to help determine the truth.

The Isle of Man is an offshore island situated roughly in the middle of the Irish Sea. Geologically it is mainly made up of ancient rock from the Ordovician era.  With an area of around 221 square miles it is almost 1 1/2 x the size of the Isle of Wight. Wild deer are thought to be absent and it has around 127 ha of Ancient Woodland which was studied by the Manx Wildlife Trust in 2011.

They reported that the “woodland flora is in decline” and that compared to the rest of Great Britain the Manx “floral diversity is modest which is reflected in their woodland diversity.”

They attribute this to the levels of “shade cast by planted species and a lack of traditional woodland management with some species becoming rare or extinct as a result.”

Looking closer to home I drew a comparison with the Isle of Purbeck in Dorset.

Purbeck is a peninsular of around 156 square miles, slightly larger than the Isle of Wight with which it shares a similar varied geology and a favourably mild maritime climate. Like our island it is home to woodland bats including the rare Bechsteins, and though not numerous, both Dormice and Nightingales are also to be found there.

There is a substantial deer population in Purbeck which together with the adjoining Poole basin contains around 3000 – 4000 animals. Woodlands amount to around 710 ha of Semi-Natural Ancient Woodland and 674 ha of Plantations on the site of Ancient Woodlands, some of which has been fenced against deer.

Purbeck has many SSSI’s, nature reserves and designated special areas of conservation. Natural England has commented on the “biological diversity and richness” of the area and claims that Purbeck includes “the 10km2 square with the greatest diversity of plant species in the country”.

So what about the Isle of Wight where deer are rare?

The island has around 50km2 of woodland, nearly a third of is considered to be Ancient Woodland.  Within these woods are to be found relics of wood pasture which have deteriorated due to lack of grazing by creatures such as deer. This has also led to Lichens being threatened by shade cast by  vigorous growths of Brambles, whilst competition from aggressive plant species is said to pose the greatest threat to the Wood Calamint, the only native plant unique to the Isle of Wight.

Rich Isle of Wight biodiversity in the presence of deer

Our rich floral heritage was commented on in the 18th century when deer were more abundant here.  Richard Worsley refers to the island as being the “Garden of England” , whilst the  historian John Albin remarks “Almost every species which are to be found in any other part of England are met with here, a circumstance which must be extremely agreeable to the philanthropic mind, and grateful to the botanist and man of science. They abound in quantity as well as variety.” 

It would appear that a mild climate, a southerly latitude, a varied geology and land use, together with the presence of Ancient Woodland are amongst the prime factors influencing floral biodiversity.

It is notable that with a large resident deer population this rich flora is greater in Dorset than the Isle of Wight

If you have seen some deer on the island please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

Thank you for your interest and support

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

Rewilding-Deer and the Environment (1)

A red deer hind hidden in an Isle of Wight wood

Deer and the Environment. (1)

It has been said that :-

“The absence of certain species such as Deer and Grey Squirrel has a direct benefit for the woodland flora and fauna across the Island ”  and some ecologists fear that if wild deer were to be tolerated here they could “cause immense damage” to our woodlands with their “heavy browsing”.

But is this really true?

In the case of the Grey Squirrel and large concentrations of Fallow or the invasive non-native Muntjac deer scientific evidence shows that this is indeed the case, but what of the other deer?

The Denny Pens study from the New Forest indicates what happens when you have too many deer. Two enclosures were studied, one control enclosure from which all large herbivores including deer were excluded and another which was artificially stocked with Fallow deer at an extremely high density of 100 / km2. After 22 years most understorey species were absent from the deer enclosure and tree regeneration had ceased.

Grey squirrels are absent from the Isle of Wight

So how does this relate to the Isle of Wight?

With around 50km2 of woodland this would require a deer population in excess of 5000 animals or by comparison more than double the deer population of the New Forest where  there are currently around 2000 naturally occurring deer spread over an area of around 230km2 of woodland.

So is there a level at which  a re-established Isle of Wight deer population would be beneficial?

Scientific research shows that low density deer populations increase biodiversity, typically at densities of 3/km2 – 7/km2 of woodland sometimes more in the case of the smaller species, with a threshold of adverse impact on seedling regeneration occurring at 14 /km2.

In relation to the Isle of Wight this suggests that a beneficial deer capacity would be in the region of 150 – 350 animals and possibly more than 700 deer before they would need to be reduced by a management cull.

A species rich Hampshire wood that benefits from being grazed by native Roe deer

Are there any other long term benefits for the island’s wildlife?

Large herbivore grazing and browsing such as by deer is necessary to prevent wood pasture and wood edge habitats scrubbing over.

The advance of this scrub would lead to the loss of flowering woodland plants. Once these flowering species are lost research shows they may be difficult to re-establish.

These are important feeding grounds for many of the woodland bat species found on the island and one of our rarest, the Greater Horseshoe, feeds on the coprophagous invertebrates associated with deer dung – perhaps this is why it is so scarce here.

So our woodlands – particularly wood pasture and edge habitats may actually be suffering from the relative absence of deer and not benefiting as some have claimed.

The Greater Horseshoe Bat- it feeds its young on the beetles found in deer dung and is scarce on the Isle of Wight

If you have seen some deer on the island please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

Thank you for your interest and support

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

Rewilding-What happens when you have too few deer?

Deer in woodland on the Isle of Wight

What happens when you have too few deer?

The risks posed to woodland ecology by having too many deer are well publicised but what is less well known is that having too few deer is also very detrimental to biological diversity.

What are the damaging signs of having too few deer?

Typically a reduction in species diversity with fewer more vigorous species coming to dominate, habitats such as wood pasture and edge begin to disappear.

So how might this manifest itself on the Isle of Wight?

We can expect subtle long term changes to our woodland flora with vulnerable species being most at risk. One such plant, the Wood Calamint, which is unique to the island within the UK, has suffered due to mature over growths of Hazel, as a result it is now very much endangered. This rare plant does not enjoy being shaded by more vigorous vegetation, likewise the heathland habitat of the very scarce Reddish buff moth is threatened by woody encroachment, deer grazing is a natural process that helps to prevent this.

Are there any examples of damage to the island’s woodlands that has already occurred?

The Forestry Commission have said that in Parkhurst Forest “Rare, remnant pre-enclosure pasture woodland and open heath grassland species have hung on in the post-enclosure high forest but are under threat from the un­checked growth of vegetation.”

Parkhurst was originally a hunting preserve for the nobility, before the forest was enclosed in the early 19thcentury these pastures benefited by being grazed by around 200 deer.

So why are wood pasture habitats so important?

Wood pasture contains a diversity of flowering species, and are important feeding grounds for lepidoptera, whilst many of our woodland bats feed on invertebrates found there. One of our rarest, the Greater Horseshoe, benefits from feeding on the beetles found in deer dung.  Woodland butterflies such as the very rare Pearl Bordered Fritillary thrives where deer grazing slows down natural regeneration and helps to maintain open areas of Bracken in canopy gaps and along woodland edges. Regrettably the Isle of Wight has recently lost not just its Pearl-Bordered Fritillary but also the Small Pearl-Bordered Fritillary and Duke of Burgundy butterflies as well.

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary Butterfly – Several species of woodland butterflies have recently been lost to the Isle of Wight, possibly due to insufficient deer browsing activity

Is there any other evidence of long term damage caused by over growths of vegetation in Parkhurst Forest?

The Wessex Lichens group have reported that some areas are “desperately overgrown with even the rides lost to dense bramble with an under storey of Sycamore between the trees” and that “the forest’s lichen old woodland assemblages are suffering from increasing and dense shade”

Are any of the island’s birds being affected by the lack of sufficient deer grazing?

Three birds that are common in the New Forest but largely absent from the Isle of Wight are the Tawny Owl, Common Redstart and Nuthatch. Beetles such as those associated with deer dung can be an important part of these bird’s diet, the Tawny Owl also feeds on Wood Mice and Bank Voles. In order to catch these small mammals they require some of the habitat within woodlands to be more open without a large amount of dense cover.  The Common  Redstart also prefers these more open woodland areas that deer grazing and browsing helps to create.  It would appear that our local woods are no longer suitable for these birds.

So what might be the best approach to managing deer in the Isle of Wight’s woodlands?

Trinity College, Dublin has recently published some interesting research Exclusion of large herbivores: Long-term changes within the plant community in which they found that excluding deer from Oak woods was harmful to biodiversity, to quote one of the authors, Dr Miles Newman ” Woodland ecology, it seems is a little like life- it’s often best to do things in moderation. If there is too much or too little grazing, these important habitats may lose valuable species for good.”

If you have seen some deer on the island please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

BDS Deer IW statement

Thank you for your interest and support

 

Red Deer Stag

Red Deer Stag on the Isle of Wight – For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the  Isle of Wight Deer Album

Swimming Deer

A Roe Buck that swam across the Solent from the Isle of Wight

Swimming Deer

One of the lesser known facts about deer is that as well as being very athletic creatures on land they are also strong and able swimmers that will readily take to the water. They are known to naturally disperse and migrate across lakes, strong flowing rivers and arms of the sea.

Deer have hollow body hairs which assist buoyancy and have strong hind legs which enable them to swim long distances, up to 10 miles have been claimed from the United States.

According to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Whitetail deer, a close relative of our native Roe, can swim at 13 mph, this compares favourably with the Lymington to Yarmouth ferry which struggles to top 9 mph on its 5 mile crossing.

Around the coast of the UK Red, Roe, Sika and Muntjac are often seen swimming, whilst paradoxically the marsh dwelling Chinese Water Deer appears to be the species least likely to be seen in the sea.

Slow moving Wightlink ferry – Deer can swim faster!

The Solent is no exception to this and island status poses no barrier to deer migrating from the mainland to the Isle of Wight. Even as long ago as the 17th century Sir John Oglander recounts the tale of a distinctive red deer stag that swum across to the island whilst being hunted and took up residence on his Rowborough estate. He tells of how this deer used to disappear during the rut only to reappear afterwards and his belief was that it returned to the mainland during this time, this is entirely within what we now know to be the habits of rutting red deer stags.

More recently in both the 20th and current century Roe and Muntjac have been photographed swimming in the Solent and their presence has been described by members of the public and conservation groups such as the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust.

Isle of Wight Deer Conservation are currently conducting a survey of the island’s deer population, including those seen swimming around the Solent and coastal areas.

If you have seen any deer please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

Thank you for your interest and support

Picture by Jonathan Kershaw

Roe Buck picture by Jonathan Kershaw

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

For photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

Wild Deer are an Asset!

Red deer Isle of Wight

Wild Deer are an Asset! 

When properly managed there are many positive aspects to the presence of wild deer, these may include public enjoyment, wildlife tourism, stalking and the supply of true wild venison, a healthy and environmentally friendly meat. All this in addition to the environmental benefit that low density deer grazing brings to woodland biodiversity.

What sort of value can wild deer bring to rural economies?
All too often deer are merely thought of in terms of what a land owner might sell stalking rights for, around £ 2.00 – £ 3.00 per acre, sometimes much more – £ 28.00 an acre in the south of England. Or what a carcase might fetch at the game dealers, currently £ 2.25 – £ 3.00 per kg. However their economic worth extends well beyond this.
A study from Scotland where there are around 800,000 deer claims that they annually generate around £ 105 million in relation to deer stalking and contribute towards £ 138 million of wildlife tourism. This compares very favourably to the £ 10 thousand cost of deer damage to agriculture there.
But it is not just Scotland that benefits in this way. One Exmoor study puts an overall net value on wild deer to the local community at £ 3.2 million per annum, equivalent to £ 1089 per deer with stags the most valuable at £ 3750 per head..

So are there any negative economic impacts?
Agriculture
A five year study by Defra “Quantifying the damage wild deer cause to agricultural crops and pastures” (Rutter S.M. and Langbein J. 2005) revealed that many farmers believed that the “damage caused by deer causes significant economic loss”. This research reveals however that “Scientific studies to quantify the actual (rather than perceived) levels of damage, have been either inconclusive or shown that the damage in relatively insignificant.” Exclosure cages were set up in growing crops which variously prevented access by deer and lagomorphs (Hares & Rabbits) and soil fertility was assessed.
Their conclusion was that “The results from the exclosure trial studies showed only one highly statistically significant reduction in yield which was due to lagomorphs only (and not deer).These studies clearly demonstrated that any impact of the foraging behaviour of wild deer on agricultural crops is insignificant in comparison with the variation in yield due to soil fertility levels. “

A study from the East of England “Economic Impacts of Wild Deer in the East of England” (Piran C.L. White, James C.R. Smart, Monika Bohm, Jochen Langbein & Alastair I. Ward) where deer are at damagingly high densities claims that “The agricultural damage can be highly localised, even within single farms…particularly when it involves high value crops”
In common with domestic livestock wild deer may be afflicted by ailments but Defra have stated that “The evidence available so far suggests that deer are unlikely to be a significant source of spread for the main livestock diseases, although the monitoring in deer has been low”.

Deer Vehicle Collisions (DVC’s)
Many mainland areas have problems with DVC’s but these are most prevalent where there are not just high density deer populations but also high volumes of traffic and a high concentration of roads, a good local example of such an area is the M3 – M27 interchange outside Southampton.
Fortunately on the Isle of Wight we do not have the requisite high numbers of deer, high traffic volumes and trunk roads or motorways so here at least DVC’s are comparatively insignificant.

 

Wild deer safaris are one of the Knepp Estate’s many attractions in West Sussex

Positive Economic Impacts – Deer Tourism

Tourism is one of the most significant sectors of the island’s economy, according to the Isle of Wight Council generating in the region of £ 500 million gross income, by way of contrast Natural England state that “Woodland on the Island is generally under-managed and timber production is a marginal activity as the value of the timber is low and transport to the mainland is expensive.”

It would appear that deer related tourism would be a way of adding value to these woodlands, as well as the doubtless benefit that the light grazing of a low density deer population can bring to woodland biodiversity. In fact one of the unique things about the Isle of Wight is that it is probably the only place in the south of England where you have the chance of encountering both native Red & Roe deer together with Red squirrels.

Some tourist attractions such as the Isle of Wight Steam Railway have already appreciated that deer are of interest to visitors urging them to “Settle back in beautifully restored Victorian and Edwardian carriages and discover an idyllic view of the Island’s unspoilt countryside. Keep an eye out for a red squirrel or deer darting away from the train as you pass through ancient woodland, and watch for a solitary kestrel perched on a fence post seeking its prey as the train ambles through open farmland and sweeping downland!”

So what steps need to be taken so that the Isle of Wight can enjoy the rewarding presence of deer?
To gain the maximum benefit from the presence of wild deer in our woodlands requires a positive attitude by landowners, managers and public sector organisations like the Forestry Commission. Isle of Wight based tourist organisations also have a role to play in promoting our wonderful wildlife, including the deer. It would be sensible to have a properly conceived “Best Practice” based management plan in place to help to ensure that deer numbers do not become excessive and help to minimise any possible adverse localised impacts such as those on agriculture and to sensitive environments.

The economic benefits of wild deer have not been widely researched, however the available evidence suggests that competently managed deer can have a very substantial positive impact on tourist based economies such as the Isle of Wight.

The deer at Bolderwood in the New Forest are a major tourist attraction (source:tripadvisor)

If you have seen some deer on the island please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

Thank you for your interest and support.

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

Isle of Wight Deer Conservation

A magnificent red deer stag on the Isle of Wight

Isle of Wight Deer Conservation Aims and Principles

Deer have been re-emerging in the wild on the island since the 1970’s with evidence of both of the native species, Red and Roe, being reported and also the introduced species, Fallow and Muntjac. With good populations of Sika along the northern shores of the western Solent it is unsurprising to see them here too.
The presence of deer in the countryside can add greatly to people’s enjoyment of it and the Isle of Wight is no exception to this. We believe that competently managed wild deer can be a positive asset to the island’s biodiversity and economy.
Isle of Wight Deer Conservation was set up in 2015 by a group of qualified deer managers, farmers and landowners interested in maintaining a sustainable population of deer in the wild on the Isle of Wight, managed ethically within the principles of Best Practice.

Deer Initiative – Best Practice applies on the Isle of Wight (source: Defra)

Deer management goes far beyond simply culling animals and it is the aim of our group to record and exchange details of deer sightings, numbers and species, their age range and any resulting impacts that they may be having on agriculture and the environment.

With this knowledge based approach to local deer conservation and management it is our intention to assist our supporting landowners in keeping stable populations of deer at the modest densities known to be beneficial and by helping to mitigate any adverse localised deer impacts that may occur to agriculture or sensitive environments.
If you support our aims and principles and wish to learn more please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

Thank you for your interest and support


Red deer hind in woodland

Thank you for your interest and support