Swimming Deer

A Roe Buck that swam across the Solent from the Isle of Wight

Swimming Deer

One of the lesser known facts about deer is that as well as being very athletic creatures on land they are also strong and able swimmers that will readily take to the water. They are known to naturally disperse and migrate across lakes, strong flowing rivers and arms of the sea.

Deer have hollow body hairs which assist buoyancy and have strong hind legs which enable them to swim long distances, up to 10 miles have been claimed from the United States.

According to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Whitetail deer, a close relative of our native Roe, can swim at 13 mph, this compares favourably with the Lymington to Yarmouth ferry which struggles to top 9 mph on its 5 mile crossing.

Around the coast of the UK Red, Roe, Sika and Muntjac are often seen swimming, whilst paradoxically the marsh dwelling Chinese Water Deer appears to be the species least likely to be seen in the sea.

Slow moving Wightlink ferry – Deer can swim faster!

The Solent is no exception to this and island status poses no barrier to deer migrating from the mainland to the Isle of Wight. Even as long ago as the 17th century Sir John Oglander recounts the tale of a distinctive red deer stag that swum across to the island whilst being hunted and took up residence on his Rowborough estate. He tells of how this deer used to disappear during the rut only to reappear afterwards and his belief was that it returned to the mainland during this time, this is entirely within what we now know to be the habits of rutting red deer stags.

More recently in both the 20th and current century Roe and Muntjac have been photographed swimming in the Solent and their presence has been described by members of the public and conservation groups such as the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust.

Isle of Wight Deer Conservation are currently conducting a survey of the island’s deer population, including those seen swimming around the Solent and coastal areas.

If you have seen any deer please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

Thank you for your interest and support

Picture by Jonathan Kershaw

Roe Buck picture by Jonathan Kershaw

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

For photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

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Isle of Wight Deer Conservation

A magnificent red deer stag on the Isle of Wight

Isle of Wight Deer Conservation Aims and Principles

Deer have been re-emerging in the wild on the island since the 1970’s with evidence of both of the native species, Red and Roe, being reported and also the introduced species, Fallow and Muntjac. With good populations of Sika along the northern shores of the western Solent it is unsurprising to see them here too.
The presence of deer in the countryside can add greatly to people’s enjoyment of it and the Isle of Wight is no exception to this. We believe that competently managed wild deer can be a positive asset to the island’s biodiversity and economy.
Isle of Wight Deer Conservation was set up in 2015 by a group of qualified deer managers, farmers and landowners interested in maintaining a sustainable population of deer in the wild on the Isle of Wight, managed ethically within the principles of Best Practice.

Deer Initiative – Best Practice applies on the Isle of Wight (source: Defra)

Deer management goes far beyond simply culling animals and it is the aim of our group to record and exchange details of deer sightings, numbers and species, their age range and any resulting impacts that they may be having on agriculture and the environment.

With this knowledge based approach to local deer conservation and management it is our intention to assist our supporting landowners in keeping stable populations of deer at the modest densities known to be beneficial and by helping to mitigate any adverse localised deer impacts that may occur to agriculture or sensitive environments.
If you support our aims and principles and wish to learn more please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

Thank you for your interest and support


Red deer hind in woodland

Thank you for your interest and support

Isle of Wight Wild Deer – A few myths

A red deer hiding in some bracken on the Isle of Wight

The history of wild deer on the Isle of Wight reflects the neighbouring areas on the mainland coasts of Hampshire & Dorset,with deer populations establishing after the last Ice Age and fluctuating ever since.

Both wild and captive deer probably disappeared altogether from the island in the middle of the 19th century, around the time that the Worsley Estate was sold and carted deer hunting ceased, and only began to be seen again in the wild in the mid 1970’s

Wild deer remain comparatively scarce on the Isle of Wight, Reds and Muntjacs are probably the most common species with the odd Fallow and Roe occasionally being seen. Deer are sometimes seen swimming across Southampton Water and the Solent to and from the island.

A few myths about our resident wild Isle of Wight deer:-

1. There are no wild deer on the Isle of Wight

Many people will have heard that the Isle of Wight has a “deer free status”, the Forestry Commission have recently clarified what they mean by this:- ” This is of course a relative term which compares the minimal deer numbers on the Isle of Wight with significant populations on the mainland”.  Obviously their use of the term “deer free” has been very misleading.

2. Deer are an introduced species like Grey Squirrels and American Mink

There are 6 species of wild deer in the UK, evidence of 5 of which have all been seen on the island in recent years. Red and Roe are native* deer that recolonised England including the land that was to become the Isle of Wight after the last Ice Age, whilst Muntjac, Fallow and Sika are introduced species.

3. They are all deer farm escapes and there are no naturally occurring deer on the island

Red deer and Muntjac have been breeding in the wild for some years now and deer are known to swim across the Solent*.  The last commercial deer farm on the island closed around the year 2000. Roe and Muntjac are not kept in deer farms at all. A FOI request revealed that the IWC had no evidence to support their claim that there are no naturally occurring deer on the island.

No public authority has been able to produce firm evidence of any escaped farmed deer on the Isle of Wight when challenged under FOI/EIR regulations

4. The vegetation on Isle of Wight is more lush and varied compared to the mainland and biodiversity is greater due to the relative  absence of deer

The mild  climate and geology of the Isle of Wight are the prime reasons for our vegetation being different from many areas of the mainland and was recorded as such hundreds of years ago when wild deer were more abundant on the island. Both historical and archaeological records show that our rich woodlands evolved in the presence of wild deer.

Dorset claims greater floral diversity than the island whilst Hampshire claims to have the most varied biodiversity in the country, both of these counties have strong deer populations.

5. Populations of rare mammals such as Woodland Bats, Red squirrels and Dormice are threatened by the presence of deer

The JNCC report on the status of our wild mammals makes no such claim, in fact Bats in particular benefit from deer grazing woodland pastures and rides which enables the Butterflies and Moths that they feed on to thrive. Some Bats also feed on the coprophagous insects found in deer dung.

6. Nightingales are only found when deer are absent

Nightingales breed mostly south of the Severn-Wash line and east from Dorset to Kent. The highest densities are found in the south east: Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Kent and Sussex, all these counties have significant populations of wild deer.

BTO Nightingale Distribution Survey

7.Woodland Biodiversity is harmed by deer

It has been established by scientific research conducted  in North America, Great Britain and Europe that woodland biodiversity is at its greatest when deer are present at low density and decreases when deer are either totally absent or at a very high density.

8. In the UK deer spread diseases such as bluetongue

Bluetongue is a non-contagious disease of ruminants found in tropical and subtropical areas that rarely occurs elsewhere, it is carried and spread by the Culicoides imicola midge that cannot overwinter in our climate. No deer within the UK have ever been found to be infected with this virus.

9. Pregnant deer are more damaging to the environment than non-breeding deer

Whether a deer population has positive or negative environmental impacts is primarily down to deer density, i.e. optimum numbers with neither too few or too many (see What happens when you have too few deer?). Apart from a relatively minor positive contribution from the products of parturition to both vertebrate and invertebrate scavengers there appears to be no environmental significance to whether a deer population is breeding or not.

10. Deer cause Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is an infection caused by a group of bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi which are transmitted to humans following a bite from an infected Sheep tick Ixodes ricinus. Despite its name the Sheep tick will feed from a wide variety of mammals and birds. Bites from other ticks are possible, including the Hedgehog tick , Ixodes hexagonus, and the Fox and Badger tick, Ixodes canisuga. These ticks become infected during their larval and nymphal phases by feeding on the small mammals and birds which harbour the Lyme bacterium. Later in their development the infected nymphs and adults transfer the Lyme bacteria to the animals and people on which they feed. On the Isle of Wight there are over 30,000 Sheep and abundant small mammals and wild birds that can perform the role of a host for the Ixodid ticks and the diseases that they carry.  Deer are described as “incompetent hosts” for these Lyme disease causing bacteria and do not transmit the infection back to the ticks.

The important thing is to be aware of the dangers caused by a tick bite and to seek prompt medical help if bitten. Take special care when walking through long damp grass etc. as this is where ticks are found after falling off one host to await the next. More useful information may be found on the Lyme Disease Action Website and in “Science Daily – Lyme Disease: You can’t blame the deer”

*Native species  (indigenous)A species, subspecies or lower taxon, occurring within its natural range (past and present) and dispersal potential (i.e. within the range it occupies naturally or could occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans)IUCN 2000

If you have seen some deer on the island please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

Thank you for your interest and support

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

Wild Red deer yearling Isle of Wight

Wild Red deer yearling Isle of Wight

The Isle of Wight’s Deer in the Modern Era (1)

Running Red deer calf Isle of Wight

The Isle of Wight’s Deer in the Modern Era (1)

Populations of wild deer on the Isle of Wight have fluctuated since their re-appearance there after the end of the last ice age, with an apparent decline at the end of the 18th century leading to their probable disappearance around the middle of the 19th century.

Wild deer began to re-establish  during the second half of the 20th century, with both Roe and Muntjac being recorded in the 1970s. The former almost certainly swam from the mainland, Roe along with other deer species are occasionally seen swimming in the Solent and Southampton Water, and are not kept in captivity on the island. The Muntjac may have escaped from a tourist attraction which kept that particular species at that time, although others may have subsequently swum across too. By the 1990s there was a small herd of Fallow that were observed in Firestone Copse and on Lynnbottom Tip, whilst further to the west near to Calbourne  Red deer were to be found.

Red deer were farmed at various locations on the island during the last few years of the 20th century whilst Red deer, Fallow deer and Muntjac deer were kept at some tourist attractions but all of these establishments had closed by around 2000.  Captive populations of both Red and Fallow deer are still to be found in deer parks on the island today.

Muntjac are seen more frequently at night

During the 21st century the presence of Red, Fallow, Roe and Muntjac have been recorded in the wild, with a new species, Sika, being noted in 2017.  Again Sika  deer do not appear to have been kept in captivity on the island but there are strong populations of this species resident in the woodlands around the  Beaulieu river, just a few miles away across the Solent. Sika deer are renowned for their swimming abilities which enabled them to colonise the Arne Peninsular in Dorset after their release on Brownsea Island in Poole harbour.

Muntjac deer appear to be the most widespread species,  despite their concerns to the contrary the public authorities have acknowledged that none of these deer are actually causing any environmental problems and although not numerous, wild deer continue to enrich the island’s woodland biodiversity.

Chinese Water Deer have yet to be found on the island (photo-Mark Seton)

If you have seen any deer please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence.

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

Thank you for your interest and support

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

 

Deer and the Environment (1)

A red deer hind hidden in an Isle of Wight wood

Deer and the Environment. (1)

It has been said that :-

“The absence of certain species such as Deer and Grey Squirrel has a direct benefit for the woodland flora and fauna across the Island ”  and some ecologists fear that if wild deer were to be tolerated here they could “cause immense damage” to our woodlands with their “heavy browsing”.

But is this really true?

In the case of the Grey Squirrel and large concentrations of the invasive non-native Muntjac deer scientific evidence shows that this is indeed the case, but what of the other deer?

The Denny Pens study from the New Forest indicates what happens when you have too many deer. Two enclosures were studied, one control enclosure from which all large herbivores including deer were excluded and another which was artificially stocked with Fallow deer at an extremely high density of 100 / km2. After 22 years most understorey species were absent from the deer enclosure and tree regeneration had ceased.

Grey squirrels are absent from the Isle of Wight

So how does this relate to the Isle of Wight?

With around 50km2 of woodland this would require a deer population in excess of 5000 animals or by comparison more than double the deer population of the New Forest where  there are currently around 2000 naturally occurring deer spread over an area of around 230km2 of woodland.

So is there a level at which  a re-established Isle of Wight deer population would be beneficial?

Scientific research shows that low density deer populations increase biodiversity, typically at densities of 3/km2 – 7/km2 of woodland sometimes more in the case of the smaller species, with a threshold of adverse impact on seedling regeneration occurring at 14 /km2.

In relation to the Isle of Wight this suggests that a beneficial deer capacity would be in the region of 150 – 350 animals and possibly more than 700 deer before they would need to be reduced by a management cull.

A species rich Hampshire wood that benefits from being grazed by native Roe deer

Are there any other long term benefits for the island’s wildlife?

Large herbivore grazing and browsing such as by deer is necessary to prevent wood pasture and wood edge habitats scrubbing over.

The advance of this scrub would lead to the loss of flowering woodland plants. Once these flowering species are lost research shows they may be difficult to re-establish.

These are important feeding grounds for many of the woodland bat species found on the island and one of our rarest, the Greater Horseshoe, feeds on the coprophagous invertebrates associated with deer dung – perhaps this is why it is so scarce here.

So our woodlands – particularly wood pasture and edge habitats may actually be suffering from the relative absence of deer and not benefiting as some have claimed.

The Greater Horseshoe Bat- it feeds its young on the beetles found in deer dung and is scarce on the Isle of Wight

If you have seen some deer on the island please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

Thank you for your interest and support

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

A brief history of Isle of Wight Deer

The Isle of Wight

 A brief history of Isle of Wight deer

The early ancestors of deer were found on the island* during the Oligocene epoch around 25 million years ago and resembled modern day Muntjac deer.

Prior to the last  Ice Age Red, Fallow and Roe may have been found on the island*, when this glaciation ended the Red and Roe gradually re-established themselves and were hunted by Mesolithic people.

In the Neolithic Red Deer were to be found co-existing with Dormice and Red Squirrels in woodland in the Undercliff.

Both Bronze age and Roman people are thought to have hunted deer and wild boar on the island and it was the Romans who first reintroduced Fallow deer to England although DNA evidence suggests that these deer have no modern descendents.

Little appears to be recorded about deer on the island during the Saxon and Jutish period although the place names of Renham Down and Rancombe respectively have their origins in the down and valley frequented by Roe deer.

Red Squirrels & Dormice have thrived alongside the island’s deer since the last Ice Age

The Normans introductions of Fallow deer into England are the ancestors of our existing populations and they are now considered to be naturalised natives.

Medieval deer parks were relatively small enclosures averaging about 200 acres enclosed by a bank and ditch with a deer proof paling fence. Within these the deer were bred for meat.

The Domesday Book records the creation of ‘The King’s Park’ at Watchingwell, thereby predating 1086, and one of the oldest known deer parks in England. Situated in the south-west corner of the vastly more extensive Parkhurst Forest, it was separated by the track which later became known as Betty Haunt Lane, most likely meaning ‘between the haunts’, an appropriate name for a lane dividing two ‘deer haunts’. A similar use of the word ‘haunt’ occurs in the name ‘Dogs Ant‘, which is marked on an 1862 map in the north-west corner of Parkhurst Forest.

The medieval definition of a forest was an unenclosed area preserved for hunting by the royal family, and the Isle of Wight was no exception. With the Lords of the Island enjoying from the King the right of free forest and the privilege of taking or driving stags or harts. Three huntsmen sent by Henry III spent eighteen days in Parkhurst Forest until, with twenty hounds and twelve greyhounds, they had caught the hundred deer required to grace the young king’s table with venison. By 1279 Isabella de Fortibus had already claimed from Edward I the liberty of a free chase in the Forest, which was subsequently granted in Edward II’s reign to the royal favourite Piers Gaveston. Birchmore in the Arreton/Rookley area also formed part of the hunting ground of the early Lords of the Island, and was another liberty granted to Isabella in 1279. Old Park within the Undercliff was a sanctuary for wild animals and reserved for hunting from the Late Middle Ages.

A Pair of Magnificent Fallow Bucks – Present in Parkhurst for around 700 years

Edward III imposed on one John Maltravers that he should, in the season for buck-hunting, attend the king at Carisbrooke Castle; during his reign, in 1333, sundry poachers were prosecuted for entering the king’s park and taking deer, and continual prosecutions followed.

Parkhurst annually provided the Lords with thirty bucks and a crop of rabbits, while 150 cattle, forty pigs and a large number of geese were also turned out onto the pastures.

Early in Edward II’s reign, 1309, a charter was granted to John de Insula and his heirs of free warren, a privilege which had been granted a few years earlier to the De Insulas on the adjoining estates of Bonchurch and Rew. Old Park lay within the medieval parish of Whitwell, and an indenture as late as 1689 recites the manorial rights to the Whitwell estate, reserving the rights of fowling, hawking and hunting – and thereby re-confirming privileges conferred by the charter granted nearly four centuries earlier.

There was  a deer park in the Shalfleet area by the later 13th century, for in 1278 Henry Trenchard complained that Amice, Countess of Devon, and her men had taken thirty of his oxen at Chessell and detained them at her manor at Thorley; moreover, they had broken his park of Chessell and “rescued the beasts lawfully impounded therein” and driven off the deer from his park at Shalfleet.

In 1441 Lewis and Alice Meux were given licence to create a deer park out of three hundred acres of woodland and pasture in the parishes of Kingston and Shorwell.

A resting Roe doe, the smaller of the two deer species native to the Isle of Wight

Borthwood Forest also served as a hunting ground for deer, and in 1415 was granted by Henry V to Philippa, Duchess of York, with a small building called the Queen’s Bower in an eminent position, from which she would perhaps view the chase.

But there are at least two other claimants to this title. Queen Anne (1702-14) is also said to have had a ‘bower’ or arbour here, when she came at certain seasons for the excellent hawking; an alternative tradition claims that it was Isabella herself who had a hunting-box here as far back as the 13th century, in what was then extensive forest.

Writing in the 1st half of the 17th century the Oglander memoirs describes:-“Deer were not plentiful except in the parks of the gentry and some that run wild in Parkhurst Forest”And then recounts the tale of a stag that swam the across the Solent:-“There wase a stagge hunted out of ye Newe Fforest into ye Iland in AnoDom. 1609 and lived many years in ye Iland; he was mutch in Rowberoe and in my grounds at Artingshoote and Whitefield. Ye king had a great desyore to hunt him, but was diswaded from itt;for it wase almoste imposible to kill him, becawse on all occasions he woold take ye seae. Itt was thought he went into ye New Fforest to rutt, and retourned again.”

A Red deer hind hidden in isle of Wight woodland

In 1650 Watchingwell Park is recorded as having nine score deer of various sorts and in 1770 the Surveyor General had reported that Parkhurst Forest contained about 3,043 acres and about 200 head of deer. At the time of its disafforesting in 1812 it contained about 2,500 acres, including the enclosed part, 415 acres in extent

Deer were kept on various estates and released into the wild for hunting into the 1840’s and it is reported that they used to escape from Appuldurcombe Park  and range throughout the island.

*The Isle of Wight did not become a separate entity from the mainland until around 7000 years ago

With thanks to all those who assisted in sourcing the original material for this article, including the IW County Archaeological Service, Maurice Paul Stafford-Bower and Alan R Phillips

Extracts for this historical section have been reproduced with the author’s permission from Cock & Bull Stories : Animals in Isle of Wight Folklore, Dialect and Cultural History, by Alan R Phillips (Newport, IOW:2008).

If you have seen some deer on the island please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

Thank you for your interest and support

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

What happens when you have too few deer?

Deer in woodland Isle of Wight

What happens when you have too few deer?

The risks posed to woodland ecology by having too many deer are well publicised but what is less well known is that having too few deer is also very detrimental to biological diversity.

What are the damaging signs of having too few deer?

Typically a reduction in species diversity with fewer more vigorous species coming to dominate, habitats such as wood pasture and edge begin to disappear.

So how might this manifest itself on the Isle of Wight?

We can expect subtle long term changes to our woodland flora with vulnerable species being most at risk. One such plant, the Wood Calamint, which is unique to the island within the UK, has suffered due to mature over growths of Hazel, as a result it is now very much endangered. This rare plant does not enjoy being shaded by more vigorous vegetation, likewise the heathland habitat of the very scarce Reddish buff moth is threatened by woody encroachment, deer grazing is a natural process that helps to prevent this.

Are there any examples of damage to the island’s woodlands that has already occurred?

The Forestry Commission have said that in Parkhurst Forest “Rare, remnant pre-enclosure pasture woodland and open heath grassland species have hung on in the post-enclosure high forest but are under threat from the un­checked growth of vegetation.”

Parkhurst was originally a hunting preserve for the nobility, before the forest was enclosed in the early 19thcentury these pastures benefited by being grazed by around 200 deer.

So why are wood pasture habitats so important?

Wood pasture contains a diversity of flowering species, and are important feeding grounds for lepidoptera, whilst many of our woodland bats feed on invertebrates found there. One of our rarest, the Greater Horseshoe, benefits from feeding on the beetles found in deer dung. The very rare Pearl Bordered Fritillary* butterfly thrives where deer grazing slows down natural regeneration and helps to maintain open areas of Bracken in canopy gaps and along woodland edges.

Pearl-Bordered Fritillary Butterfly – Recently lost to the Isle of Wight, possibly due to insufficient deer browsing activity

Is there any other evidence of long term damage caused by over growths of vegetation in Parkhurst Forest?

The Wessex Lichens group have reported that some areas are “desperately overgrown with even the rides lost to dense bramble with an under storey of Sycamore between the trees” and that “the forest’s lichen old woodland assemblages are suffering from increasing and dense shade”

Are any of the island’s birds being affected by the lack of sufficient deer grazing?

Three birds that are common in the New Forest but largely absent from the Isle of Wight are the Tawny Owl, Common Redstart and Nuthatch. Beetles such as those associated with deer dung can be an important part of these bird’s diet, the Tawny Owl also feeds on Wood Mice and Bank Voles. In order to catch these small mammals they require some of the habitat within woodlands to be more open without a large amount of dense cover.  The Common  Redstart also prefers these more open woodland areas that deer grazing and browsing helps to create.  It would appear that our local woods are no longer suitable for these birds.

So what might be the best approach to managing deer in the Isle of Wight’s woodlands?

Trinity College, Dublin has recently published some interesting research Exclusion of large herbivores: Long-term changes within the plant community in which they found that excluding deer from Oak woods was harmful to biodiversity, to quote one of the authors, Dr Miles Newman ” Woodland ecology, it seems is a little like life- it’s often best to do things in moderation. If there is too much or too little grazing, these important habitats may lose valuable species for good.”

* According to the IW AONB Partnership by 2018 the Pearl-Bordered Fritillary butterfly has recently become extinct on the island, although the HIWWT claim that it is the Small Pearl-Bordered Fritillary. Both share the same wood edge and wood pasture habitats that have become threatened due to insufficient grazing by deer on the Isle of Wight.

If you have seen some deer on the island please take part in the Isle of Wight Deer Survey  locations will be treated with strictest confidence. For periodic updates please visit Isle of Wight Deer Conservation or email  deerwight@gmail.com

British Deer Society Position Statement – Isle of Wight Deer

For greater details about wild deer within the UK please visit the British Deer Society website – BDS

Thank you for your interest and support

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please see the Isle of Wight Deer Album

 

Red Deer Stag

Red Deer Stag on the Isle of Wight

For more photos of deer on the Isle of Wight please visit my Isle of Wight Deer Album